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It is his pleasure to see them contented. Such are the relations between master and servant, and these vile Abolitionists, these Disunionists and Anarchists would sever [ sic ], and such are the happy people they wish to cast unprovided for upon a wide and pitiless world!!

In a similar statement, "the sufferings of the southern slave dwindle into comparative nothingness" when compared with "the squalid wretchedness, the inhuman oppressions of a large proportion of the white population in the manufacturing districts.

We deny that it is wrong in the abstract. We assert that it is the natural condition of man; that there ever has been, and there ever will be slavery; and we not only claim for ourselves the right to determine for ourselves the relations between master and slave, but we insist that the slavery of the Southern States is the best regulation of slavery, whether we take into consideration the interests of the master or of the slave, that has ever been devised.

Religion is at the center of American abolitionism. Just as Quakers had been early leaders against slavery, it was now Presbyterians , at the time one of the largest denominations in the country, who felt called to do God's will: to end the sin of enslaving another human being.

There was considerable writing on the question of whether the Bible does or does not approve of slavery.

Starting with Presbyterian minister John Rankin 's Letters on Slavery , which began as letters to his brother who had acquired slaves, readers began to hear about slavery as the slaves experienced it.

Rankin lived in Ripley, Ohio , on the Ohio River. There were many fugitive slaves crossing the river separating slave Kentucky from free Ohio; they provided Rankin plenty of information.

One source says that Stowe met the "real" Eliza in Rankin's house. There was only one edition of these letters before and the warehouse with unsold copies "was set on fire and burned to the ground" [16] : William L.

Garrison , who was America's leading abolitionist in the s, spoke of the influence of Rankin's Letters on him. He reprinted the then-obscure book in full in his newspaper The Liberator starting on August 25, He and his collaborator Isaac Knapp promptly issued it in book form as Letters on American Slavery , reprinted in and , becoming common reading for abolitionists.

Another collection of incidents of mistreatment of slaves appeared in , from an otherwise unknown E. Thomas, under the title A concise view of the slavery of the people of color in the United States; exhibiting some of the most affecting cases of cruel and barbarous treatment of the slaves by their most inhuman and brutal masters; not heretofore published: and also showing the absolute necessity for the most speedy abolition of slavery, with an endeavor to point out the best means of effecting it.

To which is added, A short address to the free people of color. In his preface, Thomas explains: "[M]y principal design at present, is, to record some striking cases of cruelty of more recent date, not heretofore published, and which have been related to me during my travels through the different states, for three years past: in order to excite in the mind of every individual a love of liberty, and an inveterate abhorrence of slavery, that each may endeavor by throwing in his mite, to contribute towards its total abolition.

Those facts or accounts of cruelty have been communicated to me by different persons of undoubted veracity, and in whom I place the most entire confidence.

Starting in the early s there were dozens of lecturers, many of them trained as ministers, criss-crossing the free states, speaking and giving lectures in churches, meeting-houses, and any other venue that would have them, on how slaves were treated in the American South.

There was even training for these lecturers, in Ohio, by Theodore Dwight Weld , employed by an anti-slavery society. Hundreds of local anti-slavery societies were formed.

What little publicity these lectures got was mostly negative, but in the publications of the larger anti-slavery societies we have considerable information on what they were saying, across the North, about the treatment of American slaves.

A female slave was sent on an errand, and was gone longer than her master wished. She was ordered to be flogged, and was tied up and nearly beaten to death.

While the overseer was whipping her, in the presence of her master, she said that she had been prevented returning sooner by sickness on the way.

Her enraged master ordered her to be whipped again for daring to speak, and the lash was again applied, until she expired under the operation.

Nor was her life alone sacrificed. An unborn infant died with her, which had been the cause of her delay on her master's errand. Another case occurred, where a black boy was whipped for stealing a piece of leather, and because he persisted in denying it, he was whipped till he died.

After he was dead, his master's son acknowledged that he took the piece of leather. A Georgian bought five slaves and set them a task in the field, which they could not or would not do.

The next day he added another task, with orders that they should do that and the work of the preceding day, or be whipped until they accomplished it.

The third day more work was added and additional whipping ordered. The work was now beyond the strength of the slaves.

They tried in vain to accomplish it, and at last left it in despair, and went into the woods. They were missed, and pursuit made after them, and were all found hanging dead.

They had committed suicide to escape the cruelty of their master. A hole was dug, and they were thrown into it, amid the curses of their owner at the loss he had met with in his property.

A slave, who was a husband and father, was made to strip his wife and daughter, and whip them. A similar report was published by Garrison in the July 3, issue of The Liberator.

Well organized, by informant and by topic Food, Labor, Dwellings, Clothing, Treatment of the Sick, Privations, Punishments, Tortures , it states at the outset that most of the stories are taken from Southern newspapers, most of which are available at the office of the publisher, the American Anti-Slavery Society, Nassau St.

Here is a statement by Theodore Weld about what the book contains:. Reader, you are impaneled as a juror to try a plain case and bring in an honest verdict.

The question at issue is not one of law, but of fact — "What is the actual condition of the slaves in the United States?

As slaveholders and their apologists are volunteer witnesses in their own cause, and are flooding the world with testimony that their slaves are kindly treated; that they are well fed, well clothed, well housed, well lodged, moderately worked, and bountifully provided with all things needful for their comfort, we propose — first, to disprove their assertions by the testimony of a multitude of impartial witnesses All these things, and more, and worse, we shall prove.

Mark these words, and read on; we will establish all these facts by the testimony of scores and hundreds of eyewitnesses, by the testimony of slaveholders in all parts of the slave states, by slaveholding members of Congress and of state legislatures, by ambassadors to foreign courts, by judges, by doctors of divinity, and clergymen of all denominations, by merchants, mechanics, lawyers and physicians, by presidents and professors in colleges and professional seminaries, by planters, overseers and drivers.

We shall show, not merely that such deeds are committed, but that they are frequent; not done in corners, but before the sun; not in one of the slave states, but in all of them; not perpetrated by brutal overseers and drivers merely, but by magistrates, by legislators, by professors of religion, by preachers of the gospel, by governors of states, by "gentlemen of property and standing," and by delicate females moving in the "highest circles of society.

In a measure unusual at the time, the book concluded with an index, allowing the reader to quickly locate information by person or newspaper, and by type of treatment.

As there began to be a significant number of literate ex-slaves freedmen or fugitives , some wrote of their earlier experiences as slaves, reporting mistreatment they witnessed or suffered themselves.

One of the greatest sufferings of American slaves was that families could be destroyed, wives and husbands, parents and children sold separately, usually never to see or hear of each other again.

After the end of slavery in , newspaper advertisements reveal many searches for lost family members. Frederick Douglass published in his autobiography, which became a bestseller.

The following is from that work:. His cruelty and meanness were especially displayed in his treatment of my unfortunate cousin Henny, whose lameness made her a burden to him.

He would tie her up early in the morning, whip her with a cowskin before breakfast, leave her tied up, go to his store, and returning to dinner repeat the castigation, laying on the rugged lash on flesh already raw by repeated blows.

He seemed desirous to get the poor girl out of existence, or at any rate off his hands. Finally, upon a pretense that he could do nothing for her I use his own words , he 'set her adrift to take care of herself' Sojourner Truth , to whose narrative the above statement by Douglas was appended, relates the following scene she witnessed:.

This exhibition of helplessness and imbecility, instead of exciting the master's pity, stung his cupidity, and so enraged him, that he would kick the poor thing about like a foot-ball.

Isabella's informant had seen this brute of a man, when the child was curled up under a chair, innocently amusing itself with a few sticks, drag it thence, that he might have the pleasure of tormenting it.

She had seen him, with one blow of his foot, send it rolling quite across the room, and down the steps at the door. Oh, how she wished it might instantly die!

Teaching slaves to read was discouraged or depending upon the state prohibited, so as to hinder aspirations for escape or rebellion.

In response to slave rebellions such as the Haitian Revolution , the German Coast Uprising , a failed uprising in organized by Denmark Vesey , and Nat Turner's slave rebellion in , some states prohibited slaves from holding religious gatherings, or any other kind of gathering, without a white person present, for fear that such meetings could facilitate communication and lead to rebellion and escapes.

Punishment was most often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but masters or overseers sometimes abused slaves to assert dominance.

Pregnancy was not a barrier to punishment; methods were devised to administer lashings without harming the baby. Slave masters would dig a hole big enough for the woman's stomach to lie in and proceed with the lashings.

One of my sisters was so severely punished in this way, that labour was brought on, and the child born in the field. This very overseer, Mr.

Brooks, killed in this manner a girl named Mary: her [parents] were in the field at the time. He also killed a boy about twelve years old.

He had no punishment, or even trial, for either [murder]. The mistreatment of slaves frequently included rape and the sexual abuse of women.

The sexual abuse of slaves was partially rooted in historical Southern culture and its view of the enslaved as property.

Particularly in the Upper South, a population developed of mixed-race mulatto offspring of such unions see children of the plantation , although white Southern society claimed to abhor miscegenation and punished sexual relations between white women and black men as damaging to racial purity.

Frederick Law Olmsted visited Mississippi in and wrote:. A cast mass of the slaves pass their lives, from the moment they are able to go afield in the picking season till they drop worn out in the grave, in incessant labor, in all sorts of weather, at all seasons of the year, without any other change or relaxation than is furnished by sickness, without the smallest hope of any improvement either in their condition, in their food, or in their clothing, which are of the plainest and coarsest kind, and indebted solely to the forbearance or good temper of the overseer for exception from terrible physical suffering.

Compiling a variety of historical sources, historian Kenneth M. According to historians David Brion Davis and Eugene Genovese , treatment of slaves was harsh and inhumane.

During work and outside of it, slaves suffered physical abuse, since the government allowed it. Treatment was usually harsher on large plantations, which were often managed by overseers and owned by absentee slaveholders.

Small slaveholders worked together with their slaves and sometimes treated them more humanely. Besides slaves' being vastly overworked, they suffered brandings, shootings, "floggings," and much worse punishments.

Flogging was a term often used to describe the average lashing or whipping a slave would receive for misbehaving.

Many times a slave would also simply be put through "wanton cruelties" or unprovoked violent beatings or punishments.

After , [34] in response to the inability to legally import new slaves from Africa following prohibition of the international slave trade, some slaveholders improved the living conditions of their slaves, to influence them not to attempt escape.

Some slavery advocates asserted that many slaves were content with their situation. African-American abolitionist J.

Sella Martin countered that apparent "contentment" was in fact a psychological defense to dehumanizing brutality of having to bear witness to their spouses being sold at auction and daughters raped.

Little Joe, son of the cook, was sold to pay his owner's bad debt:. When her son started for Petersburgh, Morning came, but little Joe did not return to his mother.

Morning after morning passed, and the mother went down to the grave without ever seeing her child again. One day she was whipped for grieving for her lost boy Burwell never liked to see his slaves wear a sorrowful face, and those who offended in this way were always punished.

Slave owners, even though they proclamed American slavery to be benevolent, greatly feared slave rebellions. The desired result was to eliminate slaves' dreams and aspirations, restrict access to information about escaped slaves and rebellions, and stifle their mental faculties.

Education of slaves, then, was at least discouraged, and usually prohibited altogether. See Education during the slave period. It was seen by slaveowners as something the enslaved, like other farm animals, did not need to do their jobs.

They believed slaves with knowledge would become morose, if not insolent and "uppity". They might learn of the Underground Railroad : that escape was possible, that many would help, and that there were sizeable communities of formerly enslaved Blacks in Northern cities.

In , following the Stono Rebellion , Maryland limited slaves' working hours to 15 per day in the summer and 14 in the winter, with no work permitted on Sunday.

Historian Charles Johnson writes that such laws were not only motivated by compassion, but also by the desire to pacify slaves and prevent future revolts.

Slave working conditions were often made worse by the plantation's need for them to work overtime to sustain themselves in regards to food and shelter.

The quality of medical care to slaves is uncertain; some historians conclude that because slaveholders wished to preserve the value of their slaves, they received the same care.

Others conclude that medical care was poor. A majority of plantation owners and doctors balanced a plantation need to coerce as much labor as possible from a slave without causing death, infertility, or a reduction in productivity; the effort by planters and doctors to provide sufficient living resources that enabled their slaves to remain productive and bear many children; the impact of diseases and injury on the social stability of slave communities; the extent to which illness and mortality of sub-populations in slave society reflected their different environmental exposures and living circumstances rather than their alleged racial characteristics.

An ill slave meant less work force for the plantation which motivated some plantation owners to regularly have medical doctors monitor their slaves in an attempt to keep them healthy.

Marion Sims was for some years a "plantation doctor". Other slave-owners wishing to save money would often rely on their own self-taught remedies, combined with any helpful knowledge of their wives to help treat the sickly.

Older slaves and oftentimes grandparents of slave communities would pass down useful medical skills and remedies as well. Also, large enough plantations with owners willing to spend the money would often have specific infirmaries built to deal with the problems of slaves' health.

According to Michael W. Byrd, a dual system of medical care provided poorer care for slaves throughout the South, and slaves were excluded from proper, formal medical training.

In , Virginia prohibited them from advertising certain treatments. Medical care was usually provided by fellow slaves or by slaveholders and their families, and only rarely by physicians.

Some slaves possessed medical skills, such as knowledge of herbal remedies and midwifery and often treated both slaves and non-slaves.

Slave-owners would sometimes also seek healing from such methods in times of ill health. Researchers performed medical experiments on slaves, who could not refuse, if their owners permitted it.

They frequently displayed slaves to illustrate medical conditions. During the early 17th century, some colonies permitted slaves who converted to Christianity to become free, but this possibility was eliminated by the mid 17th century.

In , Virginia granted slaves the right to establish a church, leading to the establishment of the First Church of Colored Baptists.

South Carolina permitted law enforcement to disband any religious meeting where more than half the participants were black. Owners usually provided the enslaved with low-quality clothing, made from rough cloth and shoes from old leather.

One slave, Denmark Vesey , bought his freedom with a lottery prize; [61] James Bradley worked extra hours and was allowed to save enough to purchase his.

Robert Fogel argued that the material conditions of slaves were better than those of free industrial workers. Slaves were legally considered non-persons unless they committed a crime.

An Alabama court ruled that slaves "are rational beings, they are capable of committing crimes; and in reference to acts which are crimes, are regarded as persons.

Because they are slaves, they are incapable of performing civil acts, and, in reference to all such, they are things, not persons. Slaves were punished by whipping, shackling, hanging, beating, burning, mutilation, branding, rape, and imprisonment.

Punishment was often meted out in response to disobedience or perceived infractions, but sometimes abuse was performed to re-assert the dominance of the master or overseer over the slave.

The whip was the most common instrument used against a slave; one said "The only punishment that I ever heard or knew of being administered slaves was whipping", although he knew several who were beaten to death for offenses such as "sassing" a white person, hitting another "negro", "fussing" or fighting in quarters.

Slaves who worked and lived on plantations were the most frequently punished. Punishment could be administered by the plantation owner or master, his wife, children, or most often the overseer or driver.

Slave overseers were authorized to whip and punish slaves. One overseer told a visitor, "Some Negroes are determined never to let a white man whip them and will resist you, when you attempt it; of course you must kill them in that case.

After slaves were whipped, overseers might order their wounds be burst and rubbed with turpentine and red pepper. An overseer reportedly took a brick, ground it into a powder, mixed it with lard and rubbed it all over a slave.

A metal collar could be put on a slave. Such collars were thick and heavy; they often had protruding spikes which made fieldwork difficult and prevented the slave from sleeping when lying down.

Louis Cain, a former slave, describes seeing another slave punished: "One nigger run to the woods to be a jungle nigger, but massa cotched him with the dog and took a hot iron and brands him.

Then he put a bell on him, in a wooden frame what slip over the shoulders and under the arms. He made that nigger wear the bell a year and took it off on Christmas for a present to him.

It sho' did make a good nigger out of him. Slaves were punished for a number of reasons: working too slowly, breaking a law for example, running away , leaving the plantation without permission, insubordination, impudence as defined by the owner or overseer, or for no reason, to underscore a threat or to assert the owner's dominance and masculinity.

Myers and Massy describe the practices: "The punishment of deviant slaves was decentralized, based on plantations, and crafted so as not to impede their value as laborers.

The Master-Slave Dynamics By exerting their absolute authority, will and power, owners treated their slaves as mere animals. In fact, their main intention was that of keeping a position of authority through the imposition of their physical force.

Moreover, slaves were not only enslaved in their work life, but also had restrictions within their private life. In fact, they were obliged to always ask their master for permission for anything that they wanted to do.

For example, if they wanted to get married, they had to ask their master and at times, their request was declined.

In other instances, entire families of slaves would be split up if the master decided to sell them to different owners.

Also, their living conditions were appalling, and they were given the bare minimum necessary for their survival.

Slavery in America Slavery has existed in multiple societies, cultures, and times. This was mainly because during the XV century European powers such as Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom had an aggressive expansionist foreign policy.

In fact, following the discovery of the Americas in , numerous journeys were made by the European countries not so much in order to satiate their wonder and spirit of discovery but rather to gain some sort of wealth through the exploitation of the new land and its natural resources.

In other words, the goal was that of enriching Europe and making it more powerful. Initially, the settlers exploited the natives in the mining of silver and gold.

Therefore, the colonists were able to make high profits with no labour costs. From the start, the colonists engaged in brutal acts of violence: they would work people to death, cut off their limbs, or threaten them with murder in order to make them work faster.

However, North America and the Caribbean did not have a concentration of precious metals, so their lands were exploited in a different manner. The early colonists yielded high profits by turning to crops like sugar, tobacco, rice, and cotton.

Africans were first enslaved by the Portuguese in the XV century upon their arrival on the African continent for trade purposes.

However, at that time, slavery was not exclusive to black people, and people could be enslaved as a consequence of raids and warfare.

The next step saw European colonists turning to the African continent as a site for extracting slaves. The British were the first to do so in North America in when twenty slaves were transported against their will to Jamestown Virginia.

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Save to lightbox. Hand-colored woodcut Brutal whipping of a slave in Virginia before the Civil War, from an eyewitness account.

Hand-coloured engraving. Whipping of a female black slave. Original caption: 'Overseer Artayou Carrier whipped me. I was two months in bed sore from the whipping.

My master come after I was whipped; he discharged the overseer. The very words of poor Peter, taken as he sat for his picture. Man whipping small boy; slave dealers abducted boys from Italy.

Gordon last name unknown joined a black regiment of the Union Army, known as the Louisiana Native Guards, after his escape.

How the Portuguese whip their slaves when they run away. Slave traders punishing slaves. Slave trading in the 19th century. The book recounts the author's experience as a free-born African American from New York being kidnapped and sold as a slave and forced to work 12 years on a cotton plantation in Louisiana.

He managed to get word to family through a Canadian staying on the plantation and regained his freedom. He went on to became active in the abolitionist movement.

See description for more information. From an original engraving in the Boys Own Annual Engraving of a taskmaster at work, whipping his men.

White marble with Armillary sphere. Brazil, Bahia, Salvador. Slave plantation labour in southern states of America. Woodcut Putting cotton bolls through whipping press before putting it through a saw gin.

Boston, From the New York Public Library. The whipping of Phillis, a young North Carolina freedwoman, took place because she struck a white girl.

Artist Gregory Brown poster showing German soldiers overseeing slave labour in a factory, and whipping one of the workers.

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