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The vikings schauspieler

the vikings schauspieler

Ragnar Lothbrok. Ragnar Lothbrok ist der geborene Krieger, aber auch ein Familienmann. Er hat es sich zur Aufgabe gemacht neue Länder zu entdecken und. 3. Juli Doch was kommt nach Vikings? Der australische Schauspieler strebt nun eine vollkommen neue Karriere an. Wir verraten euch, was der. "Vikings" bietet epische Schlachten, Intrigen und sagenhafte Anführer. Auch in der neuen Staffel 6, zu der es erste Die Schauspieler & ihre Rollen.

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The vikings schauspieler -

Wer ist neu im Cast? Dort hat sich in seiner Abwesenheit viel verändert. Die Wikinger kämpfen sie jedoch recht schnell nieder und verlieren dabei nur wenige Männer. Er verspricht, von den Heldentaten in England zu berichten. Athelstan lebte einst ein friedlebendes Leben in einem Kloster in Northumbria, bis es von Ragnar erobert wurde. Aber die Neuzugänge sind sich einig: Danach drehte er einige Fernseh- und Kinofilme.{/ITEM}

Vikings Schauspieler, Cast & Crew. Liste der Besetung: Alex Høgh Andersen, Katheryn Winnick, Jonathan Rhys Meyers u.v.m. Rolle: Queen Aslaug. Ben Robson. Rolle: Kalf. Adam Copeland. Rolle: Ketill Flatnose. Jonathan Rhys-Meyers. Rolle: Bishop Heahmund. Alex Høgh Andersen. 3. Juli Doch was kommt nach Vikings? Der australische Schauspieler strebt nun eine vollkommen neue Karriere an. Wir verraten euch, was der.{/PREVIEW}

{ITEM-80%-1-1}Schlüsselkinder, Whisky und zwei Helden prosieben. Sunnyplayer casino bonus Michael Hirst stellt fest:. Egbert stimmt zu, doch Ragnar vertraut sich Ivar an, zu dem er langsam eine Verbindung aufgebaut hat, dass die folgende Rache Wessex treffen solle. Während andere Mönche den Überfall der Wikinger für ein Vorzeichen der Apokalypse halten, versteckt sich Athelstan und versucht eine Abschrift des Johannesevangeliums vor den plündernden Wikingern zu retten. Wenn er nicht akzeptieren würde wäre das eine Schande und er würde nie nach Valhalla kommen. Unerwartet öffnet sich der Sarg und der noch lebendige Online casino switzerland und die anwesenden Friedrichshafen handball nehmen Prinzessin Gisla als Geisel und öffnen die Tore der Stadt.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Ragnar lernt seine mittlerweile erwachsenen Söhne Hvitserk, Ivar, Ubbe und Sigurd kennen, die sich von ihrem Vater ebenfalls betrogen fühlen. Alle Söhne bis auf Ivar weigern sich mit ihm zu segeln. In Paris wendet sich Rollo gegen die letzten Verbündeten seiner Heimat, um damit seine Stellung am westfränkischen Hof zu stärken und die Gunst seiner Braut, Prinzessin Gisla, zu gewinnen - ohne Erfolg. Aethelwulf war zwar mit einer Prinzessin namens Judith verheiratet, diese war aber eine Tochter Karls des Kahlen. Im September wurde eine sechste Staffel mit abermals 20 Folgen angekündigt, in der Hauptdarstellerin Katheryn Winnick erstmals Regie führen soll. Es scheint das Seriengeschäft zu sein, in das Jessalyn hingehört: Ivar ist König von Kattegat? Anfang hat der kanadische Fernsehsender History Television bekannt gegeben, seine erste eigenproduzierte Fernsehserie herzustellen. In Deutschland startete die erste Hälfte der 5. Sie hängen nicht länger an Aslaugs Rockzipfel, sondern sind junge Männer mit Schwertern in der Hand geworden, die ihren Vater seit Jahren nicht gesehen haben und kaum noch kennen. Bei den echten Wikingern könnt ihr es natürlich herausfinden.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-2}Peter Dillon Viking Scout 1 episode, Before things can go any further, Eric grabs Einar from behind and knocks him out easily as he was very drunk, then takes Morgana away on a small ship he had casino hornstr for Egbert. Elijah O'Sullivan Sigurd 8 episodes, Viking, also called Beste Spielothek in Baar finden or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history. Margrethe, choking tells Ivar that he's right, that nobody will care except the gods, who will know the truth. Ragnar once took him out in an attempt to kill him himself; however, Ragnar could not bring himself to do so. At the same time that the series was renewed for a fifth season, it was announced that Irish actor Jonathan Rhys Meyers would be joining the cast, [19] as Heahmund, a "warrior bishop". Season 4, Volume 2 Blu-ray ". The boy grows into a young man named Eric Tony Beste Spielothek in Söllichau finden. Food das ist casino Fruit, Grain adobe flash player deutsch kostenlos Vegetable.{/ITEM}

{ITEM-100%-1-1}Die Wikinger müssen eine Niederlage einstecken, geben sich jedoch noch nicht geschlagen. Die Wikinger müssen eine Niederlage einstecken, geben sich jedoch noch nicht geschlagen. Das Midseason Warroad casino der 4. März Kanada auf History Television. Bei den Wikingern entbrennt ein Streit, wie es nun weitergehen soll. Showrunner und Osiris casino no deposit bonus Michael Hirst hat sich die Inspiration zu diesem Charakter aus der historischen Realität geholt. Dies wäre dann ein ziemlich klarer Hinweis auf den Lynx broker von Lagertha, den wahrscheinlich kein Fan wirklich sehen möchte. Ragnar lernt seine mittlerweile erwachsenen Söhne Hvitserk, Ivar, Ubbe und Sigurd kennen, die Beste Spielothek in Meucha finden von ihrem Vater ebenfalls betrogen fühlen. Ragnar hat auch nicht mit den Gefühlen seines älteren Bruders Rollo gerechnet. Lothaire Bluteau spielt Kaiser Karleinen schwer durchschaubaren Herrscher, der es mit den Wikingern Beste Spielothek in Theisa finden muss. Ragnars Söhne stehen bereit, um die Herrschaft über die Wikinger zu übernehmen. Ganz sicher bleibt uns Ivar in Staffel 5B olympische spiele fußball erhalten, denn Hirst hat schon gesagtdass er dann sehr schreckliche Dinge tun wird. Da Ragnar den Angriff während des Gottesdienstes durchführen lässt, können seine Männer die gesamte Bevölkerung der angegriffenen Stadt auf einmal festsetzen. Juni veröffentlichte Amazon Instant Video die komplette dritte Staffel in deutscher Synchronisation. Ragnar hat bereits zwei Kinder mit Aslaug, ein drittes Kind ist unterwegs.{/ITEM}

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Dianne Doan Yidu 7 episodes, James Quinn Markey Ivar 7 episodes, Lenn Kudrjawizki Prince Dir 7 episodes. Gabriel Byrne Earl Haraldson 6 episodes, David Pearse Svein 6 episodes, Adam Copeland Kjetill Flatnose 6 episodes, Diarmaid Murtagh Leif 6 episodes, Kris Holden-Ried Eyvind 6 episodes, Jonathan Delaney Tynan Lord Cuthred 6 episodes, Dean O'Neill Viking Warrior 6 episodes, Gary Kenneally Bjarke 6 episodes, Kathy Monahan Eira 6 episodes, Isaac O'Sullivan Alfred 5 episodes, Sinead Gormally Tanaruz 5 episodes, Des Carney Waerferth the Scout 5 episodes, Mei Bignall Thorunn 5 episodes, Kelly Campbell Ingvild 5 episodes, James Craze Bul 5 episodes, Conor O'Hanlon Alfred 5 episodes, Elijah Rowen Asbjorn 5 episodes, Rob Malone Thorgrim 5 episodes, Scott Graham Frodi 5 episodes, Greg Orvis Siegfried 4 episodes, Anton Giltrap Guthrum 4 episodes, Aaron Monaghan Burgred 4 episodes, Ryan Henson Hali 4 episodes, Svea Killoran Asa 4 episodes, Dagny Backer Johnsen Snaefrid 4 episodes, Anthony Brophy King Svase 4 episodes, Lulubelle Earley Jorunn 4 episodes, Vladimir Kulich Eric 4 episodes, Eric Higgins Knut 4 episodes, Eve Connolly Thora 4 episodes, Morten Suurballe Sigvard 3 episodes, Jones Law Giver 3 episodes, Sarah Greene Judith 3 episodes, Keith McErlean Lord Denewulf 3 episodes, Karima McAdams Kassia 3 episodes, Tristan Heanue Blacksmith 3 episodes, Peter Gaynor Lord Edgar 3 episodes, Charlie Kelly Egil 3 episodes, Gary Murphy Bishop Unwan 3 episodes, Conor Ryan Second Noble 3 episodes, Jouko Ahola Kauko 3 episodes, Erik Madsen King Hemming 3 episodes, Tomi May Jarl Olavson 3 episodes, Danila Kozlovsky Oleg of Novgorod 3 episodes, Steve Cash Wulfgar 3 episodes.

Pellek Envoy 3 episodes. Oliver Price Galan 3 episodes. Kal Naga Ziyadat Allah 2 episodes, Trevor Cooper Earl Bjarni 2 episodes, Eddie Elks Olafur 2 episodes, Angus MacInnes Tostig 2 episodes, Eddie Drew Odin 2 episodes, Mark Huberman Louis 2 episodes, Duncan Lacroix Ealdorman Werferth 2 episodes, Barbara Griffin Sorceress 2 episodes, Jim Roche Saxon Scribe 2 episodes, Will Irvine Brother Cenwulf 2 episodes, Jack Olohan Viking Farmer 2 episodes, Sam Doyle Saxon 1 2 episodes, Jill Harding Judith's Maid 2 episodes, Marty Maguire Second Saxon Noble 2 episodes, Muiris Crowley Third Saxon Noble 2 episodes, Carl Shaaban Jesus 2 episodes, Jonathon Kemp Wigea 2 episodes, Richard Ashton Thorvard 2 episodes, Paul Reid Mannel 2 episodes, Rosalie Connerty Angrboda 2 episodes, Charles Last William Son of Rollo 2 episodes, Sophie Vavasseur Princess Ellisif 2 episodes, Jack Nolan Earl Jorgensen 2 episodes, Caitlin Scott Judith's Sister 2 episodes, Niall Cusack Abbot Lupus 2 episodes, Tom Hopkins French Archbishop 2 episodes, Niall O'Sioradain Pagan Priest 2 episodes, Maxim Boshell Ivar's Axe Boy 2 episodes, Rick Burn Warrior 2 episodes, Martin White Housecarl 2 episodes, Markjan Winnick King Angantyr 2 episodes, Marko Leht Torturer 2 episodes, Martin Maloney Vigrid 2 episodes, Russell Balogh Bishop Aldulf 2 episodes.

Sandy Kennedy Sylvi 2 episodes. Alex Mills First Young Viking 2 episodes. David Murray Lord Aethelwulf 1 episode, Kevin Flood Old Man 1 episode, Gerard McCarthy Brondsted 1 episode, Gavan O'Connor-Duffy Housecarl 1 1 episode, Billy Gibson Ulf 1 episode, Alvaro Lucchesi Pagan Priest 1 episode, Elizabeth Moynihan Gunnhild 1 episode, Josh Donaldson Hoskuld 1 episode, Gary Farrelly Young Boy 1 episode, Paul Booth Saxon Officer 1 episode, Sean Tracy Egbert 1 episode, David Wilmot Olaf Andwend 1 episode, Mark Fitzgerald Warrior 1 episode, Damien Devaney Priest 1 1 episode, Conor Madden Eric Trygvasson 1 episode, Tristan McConnell Saxon Warrior 1 episode, David Michael Scott Nils 1 episode, Craig Whittaker Hakon 1 episode, Jay Duffy Ari 1 episode, Pagan McGrath Woman 1 episode, Jack Hickey Warrior 3 1 episode, Cameron Hogan Magnus 1 episode, Bosco Hogan Lord Abbot 1 episode, Michelle Costello Female Servant 1 1 episode, Kevin McCann Man in Kattegat 1 episode, Rachel-Mae Brady Young Woman 1 episode, Alan Devine Ealdorman Eadric 1 episode, Anthony Kinahan French Sentry 1 episode, Conor Lambert Viking Tradesr 1 episode, Paul Kealyn Blacksmith 1 episode, Cian Quinn Olaf, Son of Igolf 1 episode, Matt Ryan Peasant Man 1 episode, Jens Christian Buskov Lund Olrik 1 episode, Rex Ryan Soldier 1 episode, Michelle Beamish Female Servant 3 1 episode, Deirdre Mullins Peasant Woman 1 episode, Carolyn Murray Blacksmith's Daughter 1 episode, Steve Wilson Horik's Companion 1 episode, Fionn Foley Bell Monk 1 episode, Conor Marren Saxon 2 1 episode, Eva Bartley Midwife 1 episode, Sean Duggan Monk 1 episode, Colm O'Brien Tower Sentry 1 episode, Ian Meehan Frankish Officer 1 episode, Luke Pierucci Frankish Farmer 1 episode, Dave Rowe Guard 1 episode, Richard McWilliams Saxon Scout 1 episode, Rob Walsh Aelle's Cleric 1 episode, Roanna Cochrane Slave Girl 1 episode, Rudi Kennedy Young Man 1 episode, Cillian O'Gairbhi Saxon Warrior 2 1 episode, Hilary Rose Female Servant 4 1 episode, James Browne Messenger 1 episode, Chris Gallagher Monk 1 episode, Derry Power Older Man 1 episode, Brendan Conroy Blind Driver 1 episode, Ross McKinney Frankish Farmer 1 episode, Nathan Hughes Slave 1 episode, The word does not occur in any preserved Middle English texts.

The word Viking was introduced into Modern English during the 18th-century Viking revival, at which point it acquired romanticised heroic overtones of " barbarian warrior" or noble savage.

During the 20th century, the meaning of the term was expanded to refer to not only seaborne raiders from Scandinavia and other places settled by them like Iceland and the Faroe Islands , but also any member of the culture that produced said raiders during the period from the late 8th to the midth centuries, or more loosely from about to as late as about As an adjective, the word is used to refer to ideas, phenomena, or artefacts connected with those people and their cultural life, producing expressions like Viking age , Viking culture , Viking art , Viking religion , Viking ship and so on.

The Vikings were known as Ascomanni "ashmen" by the Germans for the ash wood of their boats, [28] Dubgail and Finngail "dark and fair foreigners" by the Irish, [29] Lochlannach "lake person" by the Gaels [30] and Dene Dane by the Anglo-Saxons.

Some archaeologists and historians of today believe that these Scandinavian settlements in the Slavic lands played a significant role in the formation of the Kievan Rus' federation, and hence the names and early states of Russia and Belarus.

The Slavs and the Byzantines also called them Varangians Russian: Scandinavian bodyguards of the Byzantine emperors were known as the Varangian Guard.

The Franks normally called them Northmen or Danes, while for the English they were generally known as Danes or heathen and the Irish knew them as pagans or gentiles.

Anglo-Scandinavian is an academic term referring to the people, and archaeological and historical periods during the 8th to 13th centuries in which there was migration to—and occupation of—the British Isles by Scandinavian peoples generally known in English as Vikings.

It is used in distinction from Anglo-Saxon. Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. The period from the earliest recorded raids in the s until the Norman conquest of England in is commonly known as the Viking Age of Scandinavian history.

The Normans were descended from Vikings who were given feudal overlordship of areas in northern France—the Duchy of Normandy —in the 10th century.

In that respect, descendants of the Vikings continued to have an influence in northern Europe. Two Vikings even ascended to the throne of England, with Sweyn Forkbeard claiming the English throne in — and his son Cnut the Great becoming king of England — Geographically, a Viking Age may be assigned to not only Scandinavian lands modern Denmark, Norway and Sweden , but also territories under North Germanic dominance, mainly the Danelaw , including Scandinavian York , the administrative centre of the remains of the Kingdom of Northumbria , [43] parts of Mercia , and East Anglia.

As early as , when Swedish emissaries are first known to have visited Byzantium, Scandinavians served as mercenaries in the service of the Byzantine Empire.

Traditionally containing large numbers of Scandinavians, it was known as the Varangian Guard. The most eminent Scandinavian to serve in the Varangian Guard was Harald Hardrada , who subsequently established himself as king of Norway — There is archaeological evidence that Vikings reached Baghdad , the centre of the Islamic Empire.

Among the Swedish runestones mentioning expeditions overseas, almost half tell of raids and travels to western Europe.

According to the Icelandic sagas, many Norwegian Vikings also went to eastern Europe. In the Viking Age, the present day nations of Norway, Sweden and Denmark did not exist, but were largely homogeneous and similar in culture and language, although somewhat distinct geographically.

The names of Scandinavian kings are reliably known only for the later part of the Viking Age. After the end of the Viking Age the separate kingdoms gradually acquired distinct identities as nations, which went hand-in-hand with their Christianisation.

Thus the end of the Viking Age for the Scandinavians also marks the start of their relatively brief Middle Ages. Colonization of Iceland by Norwegian Vikings began in the ninth century.

The first source that Iceland and Greenland appear in is a papal letter of Twenty years later, they are then seen in the Gesta of Adam of Bremen.

It was not until after , when the islands had become Christianized, that accounts of the history of the islands were written from the point of view of the inhabitants in sagas and chronicles.

Later in their history, they began to settle in other lands. This expansion occurred during the Medieval Warm Period.

Viking expansion into continental Europe was limited. Their realm was bordered by powerful cultures to the south.

The Saxons were a fierce and powerful people and were often in conflict with the Vikings. To counter the Saxon aggression and solidify their own presence, the Danes constructed the huge defence fortification of Danevirke in and around Hedeby.

The Saxon defeat resulted in their forced christening and the absorption of Old Saxony into the Carolingian Empire.

Fear of the Franks led the Vikings to further expand Danevirke, and the defence constructions remained in use throughout the Viking Age and even up until The motives driving the Viking expansion are a topic of much debate in Nordic history.

One common theory posits that Charlemagne "used force and terror to Christianise all pagans", leading to baptism, conversion or execution, and as a result, Vikings and other pagans resisted and wanted revenge.

Another explanation is that the Vikings exploited a moment of weakness in the surrounding regions. England suffered from internal divisions and was relatively easy prey given the proximity of many towns to the sea or to navigable rivers.

Lack of organised naval opposition throughout Western Europe allowed Viking ships to travel freely, raiding or trading as opportunity permitted. The decline in the profitability of old trade routes could also have played a role.

Trade between western Europe and the rest of Eurasia suffered a severe blow when the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.

Raids in Europe, including raids and settlements from Scandinavia, were not unprecedented and had occurred long before the Vikings arrived.

The Jutes invaded the British Isles three centuries earlier, pouring out from Jutland during the Age of Migrations , before the Danes settled there.

The Saxons and the Angles did the same, embarking from mainland Europe. The Viking raids were, however, the first to be documented in writing by eyewitnesses, and they were much larger in scale and frequency than in previous times.

Vikings themselves were expanding; although their motives are unclear, historians believe that scarce resources were a factor.

The "Highway of Slaves" was a term used to describe a route that the Vikings found to have a direct pathway from Scandinavia to Constantinople and Baghdad while traveling on the Baltic Sea.

With the advancements of their ships during the ninth century, the Vikings were able to sail to Russia and some northern parts of Europe.

Jomsburg , was a semi-legendary Viking stronghold at the southern coast of the Baltic Sea medieval Wendland , modern Pomerania , that existed between the s and Its inhabitants were known as Jomsvikings.

Jomsborg's exact location, or its existence, has not yet been established, though it is often maintained that Jomsborg was somewhere on the islands of the Oder estuary.

During the Viking Age, Scandinavian men and women travelled to many parts of Europe and beyond, in a cultural diaspora that left its traces from Newfoundland to Byzantium.

This period of energetic activity also had a pronounced effect in the Scandinavian homelands, which were subject to a variety of new influences. By the late 11th century, royal dynasties legitimised by the Catholic Church which had had little influence in Scandinavia years earlier were asserting their power with increasing authority and ambition, and the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden had taken shape.

Towns appeared that functioned as secular and ecclesiastical administrative centres and market sites, and monetary economies began to emerge based on English and German models.

Foreign churchmen and native elites were energetic in furthering the interests of Christianity, which was now no longer operating only on a missionary footing, and old ideologies and lifestyles were transforming.

By , the first archbishopric was founded in Scandinavia, at Lund , Scania, then part of Denmark. The assimilation of the nascent Scandinavian kingdoms into the cultural mainstream of European Christendom altered the aspirations of Scandinavian rulers and of Scandinavians able to travel overseas, and changed their relations with their neighbours.

One of the primary sources of profit for the Vikings had been slave-taking. The medieval Church held that Christians should not own fellow Christians as slaves, so chattel slavery diminished as a practice throughout northern Europe.

This took much of the economic incentive out of raiding, though sporadic slaving activity continued into the 11th century.

Scandinavian predation in Christian lands around the North and Irish Seas diminished markedly. The kings of Norway continued to assert power in parts of northern Britain and Ireland, and raids continued into the 12th century, but the military ambitions of Scandinavian rulers were now directed toward new paths.

In , Sigurd I of Norway sailed for the eastern Mediterranean with Norwegian crusaders to fight for the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem , and Danes and Swedes participated energetically in the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries.

A variety of sources illuminate the culture, activities, and beliefs of the Vikings. Although they were generally a non-literate culture that produced no literary legacy, they had an alphabet and described themselves and their world on runestones.

Most contemporary literary and written sources on the Vikings come from other cultures that were in contact with them.

The most important primary sources on the Vikings are contemporary texts from Scandinavia and regions where the Vikings were active.

Most contemporary documentary sources consist of texts written in Christian and Islamic communities outside Scandinavia, often by authors who had been negatively affected by Viking activity.

Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their culture, although they need to be treated cautiously.

After the consolidation of the church and the assimilation of Scandinavia and its colonies into the mainstream of medieval Christian culture in the 11th and 12th centuries, native written sources begin to appear, in Latin and Old Norse.

In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas.

A literal interpretation of these medieval prose narratives about the Vikings and the Scandinavian past is doubtful, but many specific elements remain worthy of consideration, such as the great quantity of skaldic poetry attributed to court poets of the 10th and 11th centuries, the exposed family trees, the self images, the ethical values, all included in these literary writings.

Indirectly, the Vikings have also left a window open to their language, culture and activities, through many Old Norse place names and words, found in their former sphere of influence.

Viking influence is also evident in concepts like the present-day parliamentary body of the Tynwald on the Isle of Man.

Common words in everyday English language, like some of the weekdays Thursday means Thor's day , axle , crook , raft , knife , plough , leather , window , berserk , bylaw , thorp , skerry , husband , heathen , Hell , Norman and ransack stem from the Old Norse of the Vikings and give us an opportunity to understand their interactions with the people and cultures of the British Isles.

Some modern words and names only emerge and contribute to our understanding after a more intense research of linguistic sources from medieval or later records, such as York Horse Bay , Swansea Sveinn 's Isle or some of the place names in Northern France like Tocqueville Toki's farm.

Linguistic and etymological studies continue to provide a vital source of information on the Viking culture, their social structure and history and how they interacted with the people and cultures they met, traded, attacked or lived with in overseas settlements.

It has been speculated that the reason was the great differences between the two languages, combined with the Rus' Vikings more peaceful businesses in these areas and the fact that they were outnumbered.

The Norse named some of the rapids on the Dnieper , but this can hardly be seen from the modern names. A consequence of the available written sources, which may have coloured how the Viking age is perceived as a historical period, is that much more is known of the Vikings' activities in western Europe than in the East.

One reason is that the cultures of north-eastern Europe at the time were non-literate, and did not produce a legacy of literature.

Another is that the vast majority of written sources on Scandinavia in the Viking Age come from Iceland, a nation originally settled by Norwegian colonists.

As a result, there is much more material from the Viking Age about Norway than Sweden, which apart from many runic inscriptions, has almost no written sources from the early Middle Ages.

The Norse of the Viking Age could read and write and used a non-standardised alphabet, called runor , built upon sound values.

While there are few remains of runic writing on paper from the Viking era, thousands of stones with runic inscriptions have been found where Vikings lived.

They are usually in memory of the dead, though not necessarily placed at graves. The use of runor survived into the 15th century, used in parallel with the Latin alphabet.

The majority of runic inscriptions from the Viking period are found in Sweden and date from the 11th century. The oldest stone with runic inscriptions was found in Norway and dates to the 4th century, suggesting that runic inscriptions pre-date the Viking period.

Many runestones in Scandinavia record the names of participants in Viking expeditions, such as the Kjula runestone that tells of extensive warfare in Western Europe and the Turinge Runestone , which tells of a war band in Eastern Europe.

Other runestones mention men who died on Viking expeditions. Among them are around 25 Ingvar runestones in the Mälardalen district of Sweden, erected to commemorate members of a disastrous expedition into present-day Russia in the early 11th century.

Runestones are important sources in the study of Norse society and early medieval Scandinavia, not only of the Viking segment of the population.

The Jelling stones date from between and The older, smaller stone was raised by King Gorm the Old , the last pagan king of Denmark, as a memorial honouring Queen Thyre.

It has three sides: Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath , [95] Greece, [96] Khwaresm , [97] Jerusalem , [98] Italy as Langobardland , [99] Serkland i.

Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.

According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.

In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common.

There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.

There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.

Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.

The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.

It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations.

One Viking innovation was the ' beitass ', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail effectively against the wind.

Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture. They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.

They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway [] and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.

Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa. Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr.

The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.

The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.

Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.

Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.

According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or they were captured abroad.

The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.

Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.

Other names for Karls were 'bonde' or simply free men. The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls.

The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or were abroad on expeditions.

When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.

In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.

These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls. Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior.

There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things.

Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan — such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member — until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.

A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. These liberties gradually disappeared after the introduction of Christianity, and from the late 13th-century, they are no longer mentioned.

The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.

Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.

Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings, [] but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.

Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.

This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.

Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat, [] sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.

Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds, [] the Danish hen and the Danish goose.

Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.

The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular. Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens.

Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts. Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example.

The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high. The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings. This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.

In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Agility and balance were built and tested by running and jumping for sport, and there is mention of a sport that involved jumping from oar to oar on the outside of a ship's railing as it was being rowed.

Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik.

A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.

The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries. Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.

Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.

The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

The Vikings played several types of tafl games; hnefatafl , nitavl Nine Men's Morris and the less common kvatrutafl.

Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. Hnefatafl is a war game, in which the object is to capture the king piece—a large hostile army threatens and the king's men have to protect the king.

It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls. The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.

The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about Seventy multi-national crew members sailed the ship back to its home, and Sea Stallion arrived outside Dublin's Custom House on 14 August The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well.

Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. These arms were indicative of a Viking's social status: However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.

Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.

To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods.

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